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Organizational Behavior Course Notes – Miscellaneous

External vs. Internal Control


Additive Tasks – Tasks which require no interaction between members, but combine the efforts of the group to determine the outcome (ex. tug-of -war).

Disjunctive Tasks – Tasks which require a group to develop or choose a single “best” answer. The group decision is as good as the best answer/best person.

Conjunctive Tasks – Tasks which require members to perform their respective roles properly in order for the group to be successful. (ex. An assembly line)

Compensatory Tasks – Tasks which do not have a single “best’ answer. Typically these are very complex problems.

Factors That Influence People’s Judgments of Others

“When people first meet others they cannot help noticing certain highly visible and distinctive characteristics: sex, race, physical appearance, and the like.”

Several buzzword theories illustrate this:

  1. Implicit Personality Theory
  2. A mental model that holds that various physical attributes, personality traits, attitudes, and behaviors are related. Example: good looks mean brains and friendliness.

  3. Halo Effect
  4. Based on one characteristic (ie: looks or brains) people attribute either all good or all bad traits. The example given was of the panhandling experiment where the “beggar” was dressed in ratty clothes, physically unappealing or was dressed up and looking good.

  5. Fundamental Attribution Error
  6. A tendency to attribute good/bad to a person rather than a situation.

  7. Framing Effect
  8. In the Asch Order test, a person was described as warm or cold and people (strangers) were asked to rank characteristics of that person from 1 to 7 with 7 being “very” and 1 “not at all”. The person described as warm was rated higher on generous, happy, popular, and sociable.