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Kotler’s Attack and Defense Strategies

  1. Frontal: confronting dominant players head-on (more often price-based and often subsidized by the home market)
  2. Flanking: entering niche or geographical area where players are weak or not present
  3. Encirclement: encircling an opponent’s position (covering all nice areas with an array of product styles)
  4. By-pass: leap-frogging – choosing a different battleground
  5. Guerilla: attacking in small raids on competitor’s territory. Designed to sap strength and wrong-foot them.